Vietnam
 

[Long Tinh flag [Vietnam] 1802 - 1878]
   1802 - 1878, Emperor's flag to 1863
 
 
[Dai Nam flag [Vietnam] 1878 - 1890]
     1878 - 1890 Annam (approx. design) 
 
 
[Vietnam [Annam] 1890-1920]
                1890 - 1920  Annam
 
 
[Cochinchina, 1946-1948]
             3 Jun 1946 - 2 Jun 1948
 

 

[Long Tinh flag [Annam] 1920 - 1945]
           1920 - 30 Aug 1945 Annam
 
 
[flag of Annam under French protectorate]
      1923 - 9 Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag
 
 
[Que Ly flag [Vietnam] 1890 - 1920]
     9 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  Vietnam
 
 
[South Vietnam, 1948-1975]
      2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 Vietnam
    (from 1954 flag of South Vietnam only)

 

Vietnam Index

Chronology

2809 BC - 258 BC           Van Lang kingdom under Hung Voung dynasty.
257 BC                     Renamed Au Lac kingdom.
196 BC - 111 BC            Vassal of China.
111 BC                     Annexed by China.
40 AD - 43 AD              Brief independence under the Trung sisters. 
544 AD - 602 AD            Van Xuan independent under Le dynasty.
679                        Creation by China of the protectorate general
                             of An Nam.
939                        Ngo Quyen defeated the kingdom of Nam Han
                             traditional date of Vietnamese independence.
965 - 968                  Turmoil, divided into 12 feudal lordships
                             under: Ngo Xoung Xi in Binh Kieu; Do Canh Thuc
                             in Do Dong Giang; Tran Lam in Bo Hai Khau; Kieu
                             Cong Han in Phong Chau; Nguyen Khoan in Tam 
                             Dai; Nguyen Nhat Khanh in Doung Lam; Ly Khe in
                             Sieu Loai; Nguyen Thu Tiep in Tien Du; Lu Doung
                             in Te Giang; Ngueyen Sieu in Tay Phu Liet; Kieu
                             Thuan in Cam Khe; and Pham Bach Ho in Dang Chau
968 - 980                  Renamed Dai Co Viet.
1010                       Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm; Viet 
                             [Chinese: Yue]) is a geographic concept of
                             a variable China/Vietnam location.
1558 - 1777/87             Division into north and south by ruling 
                             dynasties. Trinh line rules from Hanoi 
                             (Tonkin), the Nguyen line rules from Hue 
                             (Annam and Cochinchina).
1666 - 1884                Annam a tributary to China.
31 May 1802                Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm) restored after
                             defeat of the Tay Son rulers.
1804                       Viet Nam Quoc (Viet Nam Realm)(name authorized
                             by China).
15 Feb 1839                Dai Nam Quoc (literally, "Great South Realm") 
                             (name not authorized by China).
Sep 1858                   French occupy Da Nang (Tourane) and Saigon.
18 Feb 1859                French occupy Saigon.
 5 Jun 1862                Southern region (Cochinchina) ceded to France.
20 Nov 1873 - 15 Mar 1874  French occupy Hanoi and Haiphong in Tonkin.
15 Mar 1874                Tonkin a French protectorate by Treaty of Saigon.
27 Apr 1882 - 25 Aug 1883  French again occupy Hanoi. 
25 Aug 1883                Annam and Tonkin become French protectorates
                             by Treaty of Hué.
17 Oct 1887                Union of Indochina formed (Cambodia, Annam,
                             Tonkin, and  Cochinchina, and from 3 Oct
                             1893, Laos).
Oct 1888                   Hanoi, Haiphong and Danang are ceded to France.
 
1900                       Koung-Tchéou-Wan (Kwangchowan) China leased 
                             territory administratively joined to 
                             French Indo-China.
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
22 Sep 1940                Japanese troops based in northern Indochina.
28 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in southern Indochina.
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
11 Mar 1945                Emperor Bao Dai proclaims the end of the
                             French protectorate and the restoration of the
                             independence of Vietnam (in full cooperation
                             with Japan).
 
12 Jun 1945                Viet Nam Empire
25 Aug 1945                End of the empire; subsequently de facto 
                             division between North and South Vietnam.
 2 Sep 1945                Independence proclaimed (Democratic Republic of
                             Vietnam); controlling North Vietnam only.
 6 Mar 1946                France recognizes the Democratic Republic of
                             Vietnam (north) as a free state within the
                             Federation of Indochina and French Union. 
Sep 1945 - Jan/Mar 1946    Allied occupation of French Indo-China by
                             China above 16th parallel, and Britain below.
 1 Jun 1946 - 14 Jun 1949  Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina (in the 
                             South).
21 Jul 1954                Division formalized by Geneva Accords.
 5 Oct 1954                The last French troops leave Hanoi. 
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam
 2 Jul 1976                Unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Empire
(1675-1945)

Champa/
Panduranga
(1695-1822)

Pulo Condor
(1702-1705)

French Indochina
(1887-1956)

Annam
(1875-1955)

Tonkin
(1886-1955)

French Cochinchina
(1858-1946)

North Vietnam
(1945-1976)

South Vietnam
(1946-1976)

Map of Ethnic
Groups
in Indochina

Historical Maps
of Vietnam

 

 

Empire
 

Capital: Hue
(Hanoi 1010-1802)

Imperial Anthem
"Dang Dan Cung"

 

Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of An Nam," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more available) is as follows: personal name (ho [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (dang ton hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).


Rulers (from 1806, Emperors [style Dai Viet Hoang De]); 
from 1884, imperial title translated by the French as King)

 3 Aug 1675 - May 1705     Le Duy Hiep
                             mieu hieu: Hi Tong / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                             nien hieu 31 Jan 1680 - May 1705: Chinh Hoa
22 May 1705 - Apr 1729     Le Duy Duong
                             mieu hieu: Du Tong / dang ton hieu: Hoa Hoang De
                             nien hieu May 1705 - 8 Feb 1720: Vinh Thinh
                             nien hieu 8 Feb 1720 - 27 Apr 1729: Bao Thai
Apr 1729 - Sep 1732        Le Duy Phuong
                             dang ton hieu: (Hon Duc De)
                             nien hieu Apr 1729 - Sep 1732: Vinh Khanh
Sep 1729 -  7 May 1735     Le Duy Tuong
                             mieu hieu: Thuan Tong / dang ton hieu: Gian Hoang De
                             nien hieu Sep 1732 - 7 May 1735: Long Duc
May 1735 - Jun 1740        Le Duy Thin (also called Le Duy Chan)
                             mieu hieu: Y Tong / dang ton hieu: Huy Hoang De
                             nien hieu May 1735 - Jun 1740: Vinh Huu
Jun 1740 - 10 Aug 1786     Le Duy Dao
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Vinh Hoang De
                             nien hieu Jun 1740 - 18 Feb 1787: Canh Hung
                             (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
1767 - 1769                Le Duy Mat (in rebellion)
Aug 1786 - 30 Jan 1789     Le Duy Ky
                             dang ton hieu: Man Hoang De
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1787 - 1789: Chieu Tong
                             (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
30 Jan 1789 - 31 May 1802  Rule extinguished by Tay Son rulers
1789 - 1790                Le Duy Chi 
                             (in rebellion against Tay Son rule)
31 May 1802 -  3 Feb 1820  Nguyen Phuoc Noan                  (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
                             mieu hieu: The To / dang ton hieu: Cao Hoang De
                             nien hieu 31 May 1802 - 14 Feb 1820: Gia Long
14 Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841  Nguyen Phuoc Hao                   (b. 1791 - d. 1841)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To / dang ton hieu: Nhan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1820 - 11 Feb 1841: Minh Mang
11 Feb 1841 -  4 Nov 1847  Nguyen Phuoc Toan                  (b. 1807 - d. 1847)
                             mieu hieu: Hien To / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1841 - 9 Nov 1847: Thieu Tri
10 Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thi                   (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
                             mieu hieu: Duc Tong / dang ton hieu: Anh Hoang De
                             nien hieu 5 Feb 1848 - 27 Jan 1884: Tu Duc
19 Jul 1883 -  2 Dec 1883  Regency Council
                           - Tran Tien Thanh (to Sep 1883)    (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
20 Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Ung Chan              (b. 1852 - d. 1883)
                             mieu hieu: Cung Tong / dang ton hieu: Hue Hoang De
                             (often referred to by the nickname Duc Duc)
30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thang                 (b. 1847 - d. 1883)
                             dang ton hieu: Cung Tong Hoang De
                             (often referred to as Hiep Hoa)
 2 Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884  Nguyen Phuoc Hieu                  (b. 1869 - d. 1884)
                             mieu hieu: Gian Tong / dang ton hieu: Nghi Hoang De
                             nien hieu 27 Jan 1884 - 15 Feb 1885: Kien Phuoc
 2 Dec 1883 -  2 Aug 1884  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,   (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
                               Gia-huong Vuong 
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Nguyen Phuoc Minh                  (b. 1871 - d. 1947)
                             nien hieu 15 Feb 1885 - 18 Sep 1885: Ham Nghi
                            (continues in rebellion to Nov 1888)
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,   (s.a.)
                              Gia-huong Vuong 
                               (to 21 Oct 1884)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (b. 1832 - d. 1897)
                               (from Nov 1884)
15 Jul 1885 - Jul 1885     Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Dinh,     (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
                             Tho-Xuan Vuong -Regent 
19 Sep 1885 - 28 Jan 1889  Nguyen Phuoc Bien                  (b. 1864 - d. 1889)
                             mieu hieu: Canh Tong / dang ton hieu: Thuan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 7 Nov 1885 - 1 Feb 1889: Dong Khanh
 1 Feb 1889 -  3 Sep 1907  Nguyen Phuoc Buu Lan               (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1889 - 5 Sep 1907: Thanh Tai
 1 Feb 1889 - 27 Sep 1897  Regency Council
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Trinh,
                               Tuy-Ly Vuong                   (b. 1820 - d. 1897)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (s.a.)
                           - Nguyen Trong Hiep                (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
                               (to 4 Sep 1896 [effectively Mar 1897])
                           - Truong Quang Dan (to Apr 1896)
                           - Nguyen Than (from Apr 1896)      (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
                           - Bui An Nien (from Apr 1890)
                           - Hoang Cao Khai (from Jul 1897)   (b. 1850 - d. 1933)
29 Jul 1907 - 18 May 1916  Truong Nhu Cuong                   (b. 1843 - d. 19..)
                             (president of the Regency Council)
 5 Sep 1907 -  3 May 1916  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh San              (b. 1900 - d. 1945)
                             nien hieu 5 Sep 1907 - 18 May 1916: Duy Tan
18 May 1916 -  6 Nov 1925  Nguyen Phuoc Tuan                  (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
                             mieu hieu: Hoang Tong / dang ton hieu: Tuyen Hoang De
                             nien hieu 18 May 1916 - 13 Feb 1926: Khai Dinh
 6 Nov 1925 - 10 Sep 1932  Ton That Han                       (b. 1854 - d. 1944)
                            (president of the Regency Council)
 8 Jan 1926 - 25 Aug 1945  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Thuy             (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
                             nien hieu 13 Feb 1926 - 25 Aug 1945: Bao Dai

Prime ministers
 9 Mar 1945 -  7 Apr 1945  Pham Quynh
 7 Apr 1945 - 19 Aug 1945  Tran Trong Kim                     (b. 1882 - d. 1953)


The Trinh and Nguyen lords

 

Note: The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuoc) family ruled the South (present-day Center) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The official style of each ruler is chua, but the Trinh
are assigned honorifics with the Sino-Viet royal style vuong. The Nguyen rulers not only acquired royal honorifics (thuy hieu) during their reign, but the full royal/imperial temple name and posthumous style, changing in time from Sino-Viet vuong (king) to hoang de (emperor) after the family became the imperial rulers after 1802. This record shows a limited choice of these often very long names and styles.

 

Rulers
- Trinh family -
1682 - 1709                Trinh Can "Dinh Vuong"
1709 - 1729                Trinh Cuong "An Do Vuong"
1729 - 1740                Trinh Giang "Uy Nam Vuong"
1740 - 1767                Trinh Doanh "Minh Do Vuong"
1767 - 1782                Trinh Sam "Tinh Do Vuong"
1782                       Trinh Man
1782 - 1786                Trinh Khai "Doan Nam Vuong"
1786 - 1787                Trinh Bông "An Do Vuong"
- Nguyen Phuoc family -
 7 Feb 1691 -  1 Jun 1725  Nguyen Phuoc Chu "Chua Minh"       (b. 1675 - d. 1725)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong /dang ton hieu: Minh Hoang De
 1 Jun 1725 -  7 Jun 1738  Nguyen Phuoc Tru "Chua Ninh"       (b. 1697 - d. 1738)
                             mieu hieu: Tuc Tong /dang ton hieu: Ninh Hoang De
 7 Jun 1738 -  7 Jun 1765  Nguyen Phuoc Khoat                 (b. 1714 - d. 1765)
                             mieu hieu: The Tong /dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De
31 Dec 1765 - 1776         Nguyen Phuoc Thuan                 (b. 1753 - d. 1778)
                             mieu hieu: Due Tong /dang ton hieu: Dinh Hoang De
1776 - 1777                Nguyen Phuoc Duong
                             dang ton hieu: (Tan Chinh Vuong)


The Tay Son Rulers

 

Note: The rule by this family (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788
a brother of the Central ruler proclaims the Le rule extinct and assumes the imperial style. The two lines continue to rule, each in part of the country, until the "imperial" ruler
unifies the country in 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.

Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien Vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang De)
1776 - Oct 1793            Nguyen Van Nhac (Ho Van Nhac)      (b. c.1752 - d. 1793)
                             nien hieu 1778 - Oct 1793: Thai Duc
 

Rulers (title Dai Viet Hoang De)
22 Dec 1788 - 15 Sep 1792  Nguyen Van Hue (Nguyen Quang Binh) (b. c.1752 - d. 1792)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De
                             nien hieu 22 Dec 1788 - 11 Feb 1793: Quang Trung
15 Sep 1792 - Jul 1802     Nguyen Quang Toan (Nguyen Trac)    (b. 1782 - d. af.1802)
                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1793 - Jun 1801: Canh Thinh
                             nien hieu Jun 1801 - Jul 1802: Bao Hung
1792 - 1795                Bui Doc Tuyen -Regent


Champa (Panduranga)

 

Note: Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meager evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).
 

Map of Champa

Capital: Pangdarang
(Vijaya  986 - 1471;
 Indrapura 860-986;
Simhapura  4th - 860)

Population: N/A

 

192                        Champa Kingdom founded in the southern part of modern day Vietnam.
1145 - 1147                Annexed by Camodia.
1312 - 1326                Vassal of Annam.
1471/1697                  Tonkin/Annam annexes the major portions of the Champa Kingdom.
1697 - 1822                Vassal of Annam.
1822                       Kingdom extinguished and incorporated into Vietnam.

 

Kings
1695 - 1728                Po Saktirai da putih
1728 - 1730                Po Ganvuh da putih
1731 - 1732                Po Thuttirai
1732 - 1735                Vacant
1735 - 1763                Po Rattirai
1763 - 1765                Po Tathun da moh-rai
1765 - 1780                Po Tithuntirai da paguh
1780 - 1781                Po Tithuntirai da parang
1781 - 1783                Vacant
1783 - 1786                Chei Krei Brei
1786 - 1793                Po Tithun da parang
1793 - 1799                Po Lathun da paguh
1799 - 1822                Po Chong Chan


Pulo Condor Island

[Flag of the United Kingdom]

 

16 Jun 1702                British East India company founds settlement on the island 
                             of Pulo Condor off the south coast of southern Vietnam.
 2 Mar 1705                Garrison and settlement destroyed.

 

Factor
16 Jun 1702 -  2 Mar 1705  Allen Cathpoole                     (d. 1705)
 



French Union of Indo-China

 

Map of French Indo-China

Capital: Hanoi
(Saigon 1887- 1 Jan 1902)

Currency: French Indochina
Piastre (ICFP)

Population: 21,599,582 (1935)
(incl. Kwangchowan)

 

Governors-general
16 Nov 1887 - Apr 1888     Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
Apr 1888 - 31 May 1889     Étienne Antione Guillaume Richaud  (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
31 May 1889 - Apr 1891     Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
Apr 1891 - Jun 1891        Bideau (acting)
Jun 1891 - 31 Dec 1894     Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan     (b. 1843 - d. 1919)
Mar 1894 - Oct 1894        Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (b. 1848 - d. 1895)
                             (acting for Lanessan)
Dec 1894 - Feb 1895        François Pierre Rodier (acting)    (b. 1854 - d. 19..) 
Feb 1895 - 10 Dec 1896     Paul Armand Rosseau                (b. 1835 - d. 1896)
Dec 1896 - 13 Feb 1897     Augustin Juline Fourès (acting)    (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
13 Feb 1897 - Oct 1902     Joseph Athanase Paul Doumer        (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
Oct 1902 - Feb 1907        Jean Baptiste Paul Beau            (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
18 Feb 1907 - Sep 1908     Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (acting)   (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
Sep 1908 - Jan 1910        Antony Wladislas Klobukowski       (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
Jan 1910 - Feb 1911        Albert Jean George Marie Louis     (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                           Picquié (acting)
Feb 1911 - Nov 1911        Paul Louis Luce
Nov 1911 - Jan 1914        Albert Pierre Sarraut (1st time)   (b. 1872 - d. 1962)
Jan 1914 -  7 Apr 1915     Joost van Vollenhouven (acting)    (b. 1877 - d. 1918)
Apr 1915 - May 1916        Ernest Nestor Roume                (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
May 1916 - Jan 1917        Jean Eugène Charles (acting)
Jan 1917 - May 1919        Albert Pierre Sarraut (2nd time)   (s.a.)
May 1919 - Feb 1920        Maurice Antoine François           (b. 1874 - d. 19..)
                           Montguillot (1st time)(acting)
Feb 1920 - Apr 1922        Maurice Long                       (b. 1866 - d. 1923)
Apr 1922 - Aug 1922        François Marius Baudouin (acting)
Aug 1922 - Apr 1925        Martial Henri Merlin               (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
Apr 1925 - Nov 1925        Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                           Montguillot (2nd time)
18 Nov 1925 - Jan 1928     Alexandre Varenne                  (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
Jan 1928 - Aug 1928        Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                           Montguillot (3rd time)
22 Aug 1928 - 15 Jan 1934  Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier      (b. 1877 - d. 1934)
15 Jan 1934 - Sep 1936     Eugène Jean Louis René Robin
Sep 1936 - 23 Aug 1939     Joseph Jules Brévié                (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
23 Aug 1939 - 25 Jun 1940  Georges Catroux (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
25 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Jean Decoux                        (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
 9 Mar 1945 - 28 Aug 1945  Yuichi Tsuchihashi                 (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Takeshi Tsukamoto 
                             (acting for Tsuchihashi)
Allied Military governors
- above 16th parallel -
 9 Sep 1945 -  6 Mar 1946  Lu Han (China)                     (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
- below 16th parallel -
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
 

High Commissioners
23 Sep 1945 -  5 Oct 1945  Jean Marie Arsène Cédile (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
 5 Oct 1945 - 31 Oct 1945  Jacques Philippe Leclerc de        (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
                             Hauteclocque (acting)
31 Oct 1945 -  1 Apr 1947  Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu        (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
 1 Apr 1947 - 11 Oct 1948  Émile Bollaert                     (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
20 Oct 1948 - 17 Dec 1950  Léon Marie Adolphe Pascal Pignon   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
17 Dec 1950 - 11 Jan 1952  Jean de Lattre de Tassigny         (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
 1 Apr 1952 - 27 Apr 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
 

Commissioners-general
27 Apr 1953 - 28 Jul 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (s.a.)
28 Jul 1953 - 10 Apr 1954  Maurice Dejean                     (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
10 Apr 1954 - Apr 1955     Paul Ély                           (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
Apr 1955 - 21 Jul 1956     Henri Hoppenot                     (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
 

Japanese Military Commanders in Indochina
 7 Sep 1940 -  5 Jul 1941  Takuma Nishimura                   (b. 1889 - d. 1951)
1941                       Shojiro Iida                       (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1941 - 10 Nov 1942         ....
10 Nov 1942 - 22 Nov 1944  Kazumoto Machijiri                 (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
22 Nov 1944 - 15 Aug 1945  Yuichi Tsuchihashi 


Annam -Tonkin

French Chargés d'Affaires (at Hué)
1875 - 1876                Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (b. 1840 - d. 1902)
1876 - 1879                Paul Louis Félix Philastre
1879 - 1880                Pierre Paul Rheinart (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1880 - 1881                Louis Eugène Palasme de Champeaux
1881 - 1883                Pierre Paul Rheinart (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1883 - 1884                François Jules Harmand
Residents-general (at Hué)
11 Jun 1884 - Oct 1884     Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (s.a.)
                             (provisional)
Oct 1884 - 31 May 1885     Victor Victor Gabriel Lemaire
31 May 1885 - Jan 1886     Philippe hilippe Marie André       (b. 1827 - d. 1887)
                             Roussel de Courcy
18 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paul Bert                          (b. 1833 - d. 1886)
Nov 1886 - Jan 1887        Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
                             (interim)
30 Jan 1887 - 23 Jan 1888  Paul Louis Georges Bihouard        (b. 1846 - d. 19..)
1888                       Étienne Antoine Guillaume Richaud  (s.a.)
Nov 1888 -  9 May 1889     Pierre Paul Rheinhard (2nd time)   (s.a.)

Annam

Residents-Superior (at Hué)
1886 - 1888                Charles Dillon
1888 - 1889                Séraphin Hector (1st time)         (b. 1846 - d. ....)
1889                       Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
1889 - 1891                Séraphin Hector (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Oct 1891 - 1897            Ernest Albert Brière               (b. 1848 - d. ....)
1897 - 1898                Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (b. 1859 - d. 1942) 
                             (1st time)
Mar 1898 - 1900            Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1855 - d. 19..)
 9 May 1901 - 1904         Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1904 - 1906                Jean-Ernest Moulié
1906 - 1908                Fernand Ernest Levecque            (b. 1852 - d. 19..)
1908 - 1910                Élie Jean-Henri Groleau            (b. 1859 - d. 19..)
1910 - 1912                Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 19..)
1912 - 1913                Georges Marie Joseph Mahé
1913 - 1920                Jean François Eugène Charles
1920 - 1927                Pierre Marie Antonie Pasquier      (s.a.)
1927 - 1928                Jules Fries
1928 - 1931                Aristide Eugène Le Fol
1931 - 1934                Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1943 - 1940                Maurice Fernand Graffeuil
1940 - 1944                Émile Louis François Grandjean
1944 - Mar 1945            Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)

Mar 1945 - 1945            Masayuki Yokoyama -Japanese Resident
22 Aug 1945 - Dec 1946?    Jean Sainteny                      (b. 1907 - d. 1978)
1948? - 31 Jul 1951        Chanson                            (d. 1951)
 1 Aug 1951 - Apr 1952     Raoul Albert Louis Salan           (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
1953 - 195.                Georges-Émile Le Blanc             (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
195. - 195.                Gabriel-Louis-Marie Bourgund       (b. 1898 - d. 1993)


Tonkin


Residents-Superior
(at Hanoi; subordinated to Annam until 1888)

1886                       Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (s.a.)
1886 - 1887                Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal           (b. 1847 - d. ....)
1887 - 1888                Post Abolished
Apr 1888 - 1889            Eusèbe Irénée Parreau              (b. 1842 - d. ....)
1889 - Oct 1891            Ernest Albert Brière               (s.a.)
1891 - 1893                Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
1893 - 1895                François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
1895 - 1897                Post Abolished
1897                       Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1855 - d. 19..)
1897 - 1904                Augustin Julien Fourès             (s.a.)
1904 - 1907                Jean-Henri Groleau                 (b. 1859 - d. 19..)
9 Mar 1907 - 1907         Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1865 - d. 1909)
1907 - 1909                Louis Jules Morel                  (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
1909 - 1912                Jules Simoni
15 Dec 1912 -  8 Jun 1915  Léon Louis Jean Georges Destenay   (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
1915 - 1916                Maurice Joesph Le Gallen
1917 - 1921                Jean Baptiste Édouard Bourcier     (b. 1870 - d. 19...) 
                             Saint-Gaffray
1921 - 1925                Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Monguillot
1925 - 1930                Eugène Jean Louis René Robin
1930 - 1937                Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
1937 - 1940                Yves Charles Châtel                (s.a.)
1940 - 1941                Émile Louis François Grandjean
1941 - 1942                Edouard André Delsalle             (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
1942 - 1944                Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)

1944 -  9 Mar 1945         Camille Auphelle                   (b. 1908 - d. 1945)
Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Kumao Nishimura -Japanese Resident
18 Aug 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  Pierre Messmer (acting)            (b. 1916)
22 Aug 1945 - 1946         Jean Sainteny                      (b. 1907 - d. 1978)
Mar 1946 - 1946            Jean Valluy (acting)
1946 - 17 Aug 1946         Jean Crépin
17 Aug 1946 - Feb 1947?    Louis Morlière 
c.1948                     Yves Digo
19.. - Nov 1950            Marcel Alessandri                  (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
24 Nov 1950 - 29 Dec 1950  Pierre Boyer de la Tour 
29 Dec 1950 - 10 Feb 1951  Raoul Albert Louis Salan (acting)  (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
Feb 1951 -  8 May 1953     François de Linarès
May 1953 - 1955            René Cogny
 

Crown Representaive for Tonkin (Kinh Luoc Bac Ky)
188. - 18..                Nguyen Huu Do
1890 - 1897                Hoang Cao Khai

 


Cochinchina

 


           Sep 1858 - 9 Mar 1945 

Map of Cochinchina

Capital: Saigon

Population: 4,616,000 (1936)

1689                       Annexed by Annam from Cambodia.
Sep 1858                   French occupy Da Nang (Tourane) and Saigon.
18 Feb 1859                French occupy Saigon and the three southern Vietnamese provinces
                             of Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh and Dinh Tuong.

13 Apr 1862                Territories ceded to France.
1864                       French colony of Cochinchina.
1867                       Provinces of Chau Doc, Ha Tien and Vinh Long added.
15 Aug 1887                Part of Union of French Indochina.
21 Dec 1933                Spratly Islands are annexed to French Cochinchina.
28 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in French Cochinchina (de facto occupation).
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation (see under Indo-China). 
15 Aug 1945 - 1946         Nominally part of Empire of Vietnam.
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  British occupation (s.a.).

 4 Jun 1949                Cochinchina formally ceded to State of Vietnam by France.

 

Military governors
- in Tourane (Da Nang) -
Sep 1858 - 1859            Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
19 Oct 1859 - 23 Mar 1860  Théogène François Page             (b. 1807 - d. 1867)
- in Saigon -
18 Feb 1859 - 1859         Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
1859 - Mar 1860            Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry (acting)(b. 1815 - d. 1887)
Mar 1860 -  6 Feb 1861     Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Joseph Hyacinthe Louis Jules       (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
                             d'Ariès (acting for Page)
 6 Feb 1861 - 30 Nov 1861  Léonard Victor Joseph Charner      (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
30 Nov 1861 - 16 Oct 1863  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
16 Oct 1863 -  4 Apr 1868  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
 4 Apr 1868 - 10 Dec 1869  Marie Gustave Hector Ohier         (b. 1814 - d. 1870)
10 Dec 1869 -  9 Jan 1870  Joseph Faron (acting)              (b. 1819 - d. 1881)
 9 Jan 1870 -  1 Apr 1871  Alphonse Jean Claude René Théodore (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
                             de Cornulier-Lucinière
 1 Apr 1871 - 16 Mar 1874  Marie Jules Dupré                  (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
16 Mar 1874 - 30 Nov 1874  Jules François Émile Krantz        (b. 1821 - d. 1914)
                             (acting)
30 Nov 1874 - 16 Oct 1877  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
16 Oct 1877 -  7 Jul 1879  Louis Charles Georges Jules Lafont (b. 1824 - d. 1908)
 

Governors
 7 Jul 1879 -  7 Nov 1882  Charles Le Myre de Vilers          (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
 7 Nov 1882 - Jul 1885     Charles Antoine François Thomson   (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
Jul 1885 - Jun 1886        Charles Auguste Frédéric Begin     (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
Jun 1886 - 22 Oct 1887     Ange Michel Filippini              (b. 1834 - d. 1887)
23 Oct 1887 -  2 Nov 1887  Noël Pardon (acting)
 3 Nov 1887 - 15 Nov 1887  Jules Georges Piquet (acting)      (s.a.)
 

Lieutenant governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
Nov 1887 - Apr 1888        Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
Apr 1888 - 1888            Auguste Eugène Navelle             (b. 1846 - d. ....)
1888 - 1889                Post Abolished
1889                       Augustin Julien Fourès (1st time)  (b. 1853 - d. ....)
1889 - 1892                Henri Danel                        (b. 1850 - d. ....)
1892 - 1895                Augustin Julien Fourès (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1895 - 1897                Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave  (b. 1851 - d. 1908) 
                             Ducos 
1897 - 1898                Ange Eugène Nicolai                (b. 1845 - d. ....)
1898 - 1901                Édouard Picanon                    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
1901 - 1902                Henri Félix de Lamothe             (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
1902 - 1906                François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
1906 - 1907                Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande 
                             de Calan
29 Jun 1907 -  9 Jan 1909  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
1909 - 1916                Jules Maurice Gourbeil
1916 - 1920                Maurice Joseph La Gallen           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
Jun 1918 - Feb 1920        Georges René Gaston Maspéro        (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for La Gallen)
 

Governors-general (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
1920 - 1921                Maurice Joseph La Gallen (interim) (s.a.)

1921 - 1926                Maurice Cognacq
1926 - 1929                Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard 
                             de la Brosse
1929                       Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
                             (acting)
1929 - 1934                Jean-Félix Krautheimer             (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
1934 - 1939                Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
1938                       Henri Georges Rivoal               (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Pagès)
1939 - 1940                René Veber                         (b. 1888 - d. 1972)

1940 - 1942                Henri Georges Rivoal               (s.a.)
1942 - 1945                Hoeffel
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Minoda Fujio
 

Commissioners
23 Sep 1945 -  5 Oct 1945  Jean Marie Arsène Cédile (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
1945 - 1948                ....
1948                       Albert Torel (acting)              (b. 1895 - d. 1987)

1948 - 1949                ....
 


South Vietnam
 

Map of South Vietnam

Hear National Anthem
"Thanh niên Hành Khúc"
(Call to the Citizens)
(14 Jun 1948-30 Apr 1975)

Constitutions
(26 Oct 1956 [suspended 
Nov 1963]; 1 Apr 1967-Apr 1975
[in Vietnamese])

Capital: Saigon

Currency: South Vietnam
Dong (VNR); from 22 Sep 1975
Viet Nam South Dong (VNS)

Population: 19,370,000 (1973 est.)

 

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 80%, Chinese, Montagnard,
Khmer, Cham, Malay, others 20% (1970)

Religions: majority Buddhist, Roman Catholic 10%,
Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, animists, others (1970)

 

 1 Jun 1946                Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina.
 8 Oct 1947                South Vietnam
27 May 1948                Vietnam
14 Jun 1949                French associated state (State of Vietnam).
21 Jul 1954                Division formalized by Geneva Accords.
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)
27 Jan 1973                Paris Peace Accords.
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam (North Vietnamese
                             forces occupy Saigon).
 2 Jul 1976                Unification with North Vietnam as the
                             Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

 

President of the Consultative Council 
 4 Feb 1946 - 30 May 1946  Beziat
 

Presidents of the Provisional Government
 1 Jun 1946 - 10 Nov 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (b. 1884 - d. 1946)  CDP
15 Nov 1946 -  7 Dec 1946  Nguyen Van Xuan (1st time)         (b. 1892 - d. 1989)  Mil
 7 Dec 1946 -  8 Oct 1947  Le Van Hoach                       (b. 1896 - d. 1978)
 8 Oct 1947 - 27 May 1948  Nguyen Van Xuan (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Mil
 

President of the Central Government of Vietnam
27 May 1948 - 14 Jun 1949  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (s.a.)               Mil
 

Chiefs of state (title Quoc Truong)
14 Jun 1949 - 30 Apr 1955  Bao Dai                            (b. 1913 - d. 1997)  Non-party
30 Apr 1955 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem (acting)             (b. 1901 - d. 1963)  FNS
 

Presidents
26 Oct 1955 -  2 Nov 1963  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               CLP
 2 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Duong Van Minh (1st time)          (b. 1916 - d. 2001)  Mil
                             (chairman Revolutionary Military Committee)
30 Jan 1964 -  8 Feb 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (b. 1927)            Mil 
 8 Feb 1964 - 16 Aug 1964  Duong Van Minh (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil 
16 Aug 1964 - 27 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
27 Aug 1964 -  8 Sep 1964  Provisional Leadership Committee
                           - Duong Van Minh                   (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Nguyen Khanh                     (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Tran Thien Khiem                 (b. 1925)            Mil
 8 Sep 1964 - 26 Oct 1964  Duong Van Minh (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chairman Provisional Leadership Committee)
26 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Phan Khac Suu                      (b. 1905 - d. 1970)  Mil
14 Jun 1965 - 21 Apr 1975  Nguyen Van Thieu                   (b. 1923 - d. 2001)Mil;1968 NSDF
                             (chairman National Leadership Committee to 31 Oct 1967)
21 Apr 1975 - 28 Apr 1975  Tran Van Huong                     (b. 1903 - d. 1982) 
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Duong Van Minh (4th time) (acting) (s.a.)               Mil
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Huynh Tan Phat                     (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  NLF

 

Chief of the Provisory Government 
26 Mar 1946 - 30 May 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (s.a.)               CDP
 

Prime ministers
13 Jun 1949 - 21 Jan 1950  Bao Dai                            (s.a.)               Non-party
21 Jan 1950 - 26 Apr 1950  Nguyen Phan Long                   (b. 1888 - d. 1960)  DLP
27 Apr 1950 -  6 Jun 1952  Tran Van Huu                       (b. 1896 - d. 1984)  Non-party
 6 Jun 1952 - 17 Dec 1953  Nguyen Van Tam                     (b. 1895 - d. 1990)  VNQ
12 Jan 1954 - 16 Jun 1954  Pham Buu Loc                       (b. 1914 - d. 1990)  Non-party
16 Jun 1954 - 26 Jun 1954  Phan Huy Quat (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1909 - d. 1979)  DVP
26 Jun 1954 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               FNS
 4 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Nguyen Ngoc Tho                    (b. 1908)            Mil
 8 Feb 1964 - 29 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (s.a.)               Mil
29 Aug 1964 -  3 Sep 1964  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (1st time)        (b. 1921 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (acting)
 3 Sep 1964 -  4 Nov 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Nov 1964 - 28 Jan 1965  Tran Van Huong (1st time)          (s.a.)               Mil
28 Jan 1965 - 15 Feb 1965  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (acting)
16 Feb 1965 -  8 Jun 1965  Phan Huy Quat (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DVP
19 Jun 1965 - 31 Oct 1967  Nguyen Cao Ky                      (b. 1930)            Mil
31 Oct 1967 - 17 May 1968  Nguyen Van Loc                     (b. 1922)            Mil
28 May 1968 -  1 Sep 1969  Tran Van Huong (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1969 -  4 Apr 1975  Tran Thiem Khiem                   (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Apr 1975 - 24 Apr 1975  Nguyen Ba Can                      (b. 1913)            DCP
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Vu Van Mau                         (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  FNR
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Nguyen Huu Tho                     (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  NLF

 

French High Commissioners
14 Aug 1945 - 27 Apr 1953  the Commissioners of French Indochina
 

Commissioners-general
27 Apr 1953 - 21 Jul 1956  the Commissioners of French Indochina

 

Commanders U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (MACV)
 8 Feb 1962 - 20 Jun 1964  Paul D. Harkins
20 Jun 1964 - 22 Mar 1968  William Childs Westmoreland        (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
22 Mar 1968 - Jun 1972     Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr.     (b. 1914 - d. 1974)
Jun 1972 - 29 Mar 1973     Fred C. Weyand                     (b. 1916)

 

Party abbreviations:

CDP = Cochinchinese Democratic Party;

CLP = Can Lao Party;

DCP = Dan Chu Party (Democracy Party);

DLH = Dan Lap Hien (Constitutional Party;

DVP = Dai Viet Party; 
FNR = Forces for National Reconciliation;

FNS = Front of National Salvation (coalition); 
NLF = National Liberation Front of Vietnam (communist "Vietcong" front);

NSDF = National Social Democratic Front (anti-communist, conservative-centerist, pro-Van Thieu, est.1969);
VNQ = Viet-Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnamese Nationalist Party);

Mil = Military



North Vietnam
 

 2 Sep 1945                Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed.
 9 Sep 1945 -  6 Mar 1946  Allied (Chinese) occupation (see under Indo-China).

 

President of the Indochinese Communist Party (from May 1951, Vietnam Workers' Party)
(officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945, continued in secret to May 1951)
Oct 1930 -  2 Sep 1969     Ho Chi Minh                         (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
                            (Nguyen Ai Quoc)
 

First Secretaries (top party post from 2 Sep 1969)
1941 -  1 Nov 1956         Truong Chinh                        (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Nov 1956 - 10 Sep 1960  Ho Chi Minh                         (s.a.)
10 Sep 1960 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                             (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 

 

Chairman of the Committee of Liberation of the Vietnamese People ("Viet Minh")
25 Aug 1945 - 29 Aug 1945  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)               DCSD 
                             (in rebellion from 13 Aug 1945)
 

Chairman of the Provisional government
29 Aug 1945 -  2 Mar 1946  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)               DCSD
 

Presidents
 2 Mar 1946 -  2 Sep 1969  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
 3 Sep 1969 -  2 Jul 1976  Ton Duc Thang                      (b. 1888 - d. 1980)  DLDV
                             (acting to 23 Sep 1969)

Prime ministers
 2 Sep 1945 - 20 Sep 1955  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
20 Sep 1955 -  2 Jul 1976  Pham Van Dong                      (b. 1908 - d. 2000)  DLDV

 

Party abbreviation:

DCSV = Dang Cong San Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, only legal party; Vietnamese Communist Party [DCSV] was original name, from Feb 1930-Oct 1930. Successive names were: Indochinese Communist Party [DCSD], Oct 1930-May 1951, which was officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945 and merged into League for the Independence of Vietnam -"Viet Minh"-, although continued it in secret to 1951); Vietnamese Workers' Party [DLDV], May 1951-Dec 1976; and again DCSV from Dec 1976. Post of president of the party was abolished after death of Ho Chi Minh)


Socialist Republic of Vietnam

 2 Jul 1976   Occupation of the South of Vietnam then forming the Unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

 

Map of Vietnam

Capital: Hanoi
(Phong Chau 2809-258 BC;
Co Loa 257-111 BC  and  939-965 AD;
To Lich 544-602;
Hoa Lu 968-980;
La Thanh 1980-1010;
Hanoi 1010-1802;
Hue 1802-1945)

Currency: Dong (VND) 

Population: 84,402,966 (2006)

 

First Secretary of the Vietnam Workers' Party (DLDV)
 2 Jul 1976 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 
 

General Secretaries of the Communist Party (DCSV)
20 Dec 1976 - 10 Jul 1986  Le Duan                            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1986 - 18 Dec 1986  Truong Chinh                       (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
18 Dec 1986 - 27 Jun 1991  Nguyen Van Linh                    (b. 1915 - d. 1998)
27 Jun 1991 - 29 Dec 1997  Do Muoi                            (b. 1917)
29 Dec 1997 - 22 Apr 2001  Le Kha Phieu                       (b. 1931)
22 Apr 2001 -              Nong Duc Manh                      (b. 1940)

 

Presidents
 2 Jul 1976 - 30 Mar 1980  Ton Duc Thang                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
30 Mar 1980 -  4 Jul 1981  Nguyen Huu Tho (acting)            (s.a.)               DCSV
 

Chairmen of the State Council
 4 Jul 1981 - 18 Jun 1987  Truong Chinh                       (s.a.)               DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 22 Sep 1992  Vo Chi Cong                        (b. 1913)            DCSV
 

Presidents
23 Sep 1992 - 24 Sep 1997  Le Duc Anh                         (b. 1920)            DCSV
24 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Tran Duc Luong                     (b. 1937)            DCSV
27 Jun 2006 -              Nguyen Minh Triet                  (b. 1942)            DCSV
 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 2 Jul 1976 - 18 Jun 1987  Pham Van Dong                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 10 Mar 1988  Pham Hung                          (b. 1912 - d. 1988)  DCSV
10 Mar 1988 - 22 Jun 1988  Vo Van Kiet (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1922)            DCSV
22 Jun 1988 -  8 Aug 1991  Do Muoi                            (s.a.)               DCSV
 8 Aug 1991 - 24 Sep 1992  Vo Van Kiet (2nd time)             (s.a.)               DCSV
Prime ministers
24 Sep 1992 - 25 Sep 1997  Vo Van Kiet                        (s.a.)               DCSV
25 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Phan Van Khai                      (b. 1933)            DCSV
27 Jun 2006 -              Nguyen Tan Dung                    (b. 1949)            DCSV

 

Territorial Disputes: Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; after years of Cambodia claiming Vietnam had moved or destroyed boundary markers, in 2005, after much domestic debate, Cambodia ratified an agreement with Vietnam that settled all but a small portion of the land boundary; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; in 2004, Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers in two adjoining provinces; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been delayed; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands.

 

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong San Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, 
authoritarian, government party; known as Vietnamese Workers' Party DLDV to Dec 1976)